domingo, 29 de abril de 2012

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DIALECTS by Peter Trudgill
These social and geographical kinds of language are known as DIALECTS. Dia-
lects, then, have to do with a speaker’s social and geographical origins – and we are
talking here about all speakers. It is important to emphasise that everybody speaks a
dialect. Dialects are not peculiar or old-fashioned or rustic ways of speaking. They are
not something which only other people have. Just as everybody comes from some-
where and has a particular kind of social background, so everybody – including you
– speaks a dialect. Your dialect is the particular combination of English words, pro-
nunciations and grammatical forms that you share with other people from your area
and your social background, and that differs in certain ways from the combination
used by people from other areas and backgrounds.
It is also important to point out that none of these combinations – none of these
dialects – is linguistically superior in any way to any other. We may as individuals be
rather fond of our own dialect. This should not make us think, though, that it is
actually any better than any other dialect. Dialects are not good or bad, nice or nasty,
right or wrong – they are just different from one another, and it is the mark of a
civilised society that it tolerates different dialects just as it tolerates different races,
religions and sexes. American English is not better – or worse – than British English.

There is another kind of variation within English, which is independent of both dial
and style. This has to do with the topic that the speaker is talking about. Kinds
language that reflect the subject being talked or written about are known as
REGISTERS. These, too, have most often got to do with vocabulary. The language or
 register of medicine, for example, contains words such as:
appendectomy, clavicle and rubella. The register of law includes words such as:
tort, hereinafter and  felony. The register of football consists of words such as:
midfield, one-two and corner. And the register of car mechanics:torque, tappets and clutch.

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